Commercial Water Wells (Type 2 or 3)

In areas where public water supply is not available, businesses must install a well to pump groundwater to their facility. Well permits are required for a certificate of occupancy.

Non-community water supplies that serve 25 or more persons 60 days a year or locations where there are 15 or more service connections are classified as Type 2 Non-community Supplies (Non-transient or Transient). Type 3 Public Water Supplies comprise all those that are not Type 1 or Type 2 Public Water Supplies; serve less than 25 people AND 15 connections, or operate for less than 60 days per year.

Water Supply Types

Type 2 Non-transient

A Type 2 Non-transient Non-community Public Water Supply serves not less than 25 of the SAME people for at least six months per year (e.g., schools, industries, places of employment).

Type 2 Transient

A Type 2 Transient Non-community Public Water Supply Serves not less than 25 people OR not less than 15 connections for at least 60 days per year (e.g., hotels and restaurants with less than 25 employees, campgrounds).

Type 3

Type 3 Public Water Supplies comprise all those that are not Type I or Type II Public Water Supplies; serve less than 25 people AND 15 connections, or operate for less than 60 days per year.

How to Apply for a Commercial Well Permit

Submit a complete LCHD Well and Septic Permit Application to LCHD Environmental Health in-person, by email, or online. The application must include:

Once these materials are submitted, an Environmental Health Specialist will review and issue the permit via email and/or contact you within 3-5 business days to request additional information. At your request, permits can be mailed or picked up once issued. Issued permits will automatically be forwarded on to the municipality and Building Official.

More Resources

Water Quality Testing  – Once the well is installed, the water must be tested to show it is safe.  Learn more about how to test your water and disinfect your well.

Water Well Isolation Distance Deviations – If isolation distances cannot be maintained from the new well location to potential sources of contamination, then a written request for deviation is required.

EGLE Large Withdrawal – If potential water well capacity is > 70 gpm then this application is required.

EGLE Capacity Development – Pertains to Type 2b Non-transient only. Type 2 Non-community Water Supplies are also classified according to their water production.

  • Type 2a Water Supplies have an average production during the maximum month equal to or greater than 20,000 gallons per day.
  • Type 2b Water Supplies produce less than 20,000 gallons per day during the peak month.

Drinking Water Viewer

Search Drinking Water Viewer for more information about an individual noncommunity water supply.

Water Well Viewer

EGLE’s mapping application allows users to view water wells in a geographical area on a map. Retrieve one well record or a series of records. You can also find well depths, wellhead protection areas, and sites of environmental contamination.


Property Additions & Modifications

If you are on a well and/or septic system and are planning to do an addition or modification to your property, you must apply for a site review.


What tests do new wells need?

Once the well is installed, the water must be tested to show it is safe. Sample bottles are available from a Certified Drinking Water Laboratory.

Certified Drinking Water Labs in Livingston County:

Brighton Analytical
2105 Pless Drive
Brighton, MI 48116
(810) 229-7575

Water Tech
718 S. Michigan Ave
Howell, MI 48843
(517) 548-2505

At a minimum, new wells must be tested for:

  • Bacteria- must be negative)
  • Nitrates- must be 10 parts per million (ppm) or less
  • Arsenic- must be 10 parts per billion (ppb) or less

Packaging and shipping water samples: MDEQ Video about Thermal Preservation of Water Samples

What are typical water supply system components?

  • Casing: The casing is a tube in the ground that houses the well pump and the pipe that moves water from the pump to the surface. It also prevents the hole from collapsing, and keeps contaminants from entering the water supply. Modern well casings are typically five inch plastic (PVC) pipe, or in some instances four inch steel pipe.
  • Cap: The cap is the top of the well casing. The cap must end at least one foot above ground so it is not subject to flooding. The cap usually has a screened vent to prevent insects from entering the well.
  • Pump: The well pump draws water up the hole and pushes it into the home. The well pump is usually submersible. This means the pump is installed in the well casing several feet below ground, making it operate more quietly.
  • Pressure Tank: The pressure tank is usually a 3-4 foot tall cylinder located in the home (usually in the basement). It stores water and distributes it through the home. The tank can also serve as additional storage for low-yield wells. The pressure switch located at the tank controls the pumps on/off cycle.
  • Pitless Adapter: The pitless adapter is a plumbing fitting that attaches to the well casing and routes the water supply line from the pump to the home. It is installed approximately four feet below ground so it is not subject to freezing. Before these were invented, old wells often terminated below ground in pits, or basement off-sets. Pits are no longer necessary, hence the name pitless adapter.
  • Screen: The screen is at the very bottom of the well, attached to the casing. It keeps sand and gravel out of the well while allowing groundwater to flow into the well. Some wells drilled into bedrock do not need screens since the water travels through crevices in the rock, and there is no sand to filter out.

For questions regarding well, soil evaluations, and/or septic systems, please call/email the assigned Environmental Health point of contact (based on your Township).

Last Modified February 20, 2024

Environmental Health
Livingston County Health Department Logo
Matt Bolang

Matt Bolang
Health Officer



(517) 546-9858


Monday – Friday
8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Closed County Holidays


2300 E Grand River Ave
Suite 102
Howell, MI 48843


(517) 546-9853
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